Use MS Word to complete “Questions to be Graded: Exercises 31 and 32” in Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice. Submit your work in SPSS by copying the output and pasting into the Word document. In addition to the SPSS output, please include explanations of the results where appropriate.

EXERCISE 31 Questions to Be Graded

Name: _______________________________________________________ Class: _____________________

Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________

Follow your instructor’s directions to submit your answers to the following questions for grading. Your instructor may ask you to write your answers below and submit them as a hard copy for grading. Alternatively, your instructor may ask you to use the space below for notes and submit your answers online at under “Questions to Be Graded.”

1. Do the example data meet the assumptions for the independent samples t-test? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distributions of the dependent variable, wages earned. What is the shape of the distribution? If using SPSS, what is the result of the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the dependent variable?

3. What are the means for two group’s wages earned?

4. What is the independent samples t-test value?

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5. Is the t-test significant at a = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.

6. If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?

7. Which group earned the most money post-treatment?

8. Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

9. What do the results indicate regarding the impact of the supported employment vocational rehabilitation on wages earned?

10. Was the sample size adequate to detect significant differences between the two groups in this example? Provide a rationale for your answer.

EXERCISE 32 Questions to be Graded

Name: _______________________________________________________ Class: _____________________

Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________

Follow your instructor’s directions to submit your answers to the following questions for grading. Your instructor may ask you to write your answers below and submit them as a hard copy for grading. Alternatively, your instructor may ask you to use the space below for notes and submit your answers online at under “Questions to Be Graded.”

1. Do the example data meet the assumptions for the paired samples t-test? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distributions of the two variables. What are the shapes of the distributions? If using SPSS, what are the results of the Shapiro-Wilk tests of normality for the two variables?

3. What are the means for the baseline and posttreatment affective distress scores, respectively?

4. What is the paired samples t-test value?

5. Is the t-test significant at α = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.

6. If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme as or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?

7. On average, did the affective distress scores improve or deteriorate over time? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

9. What do the results indicate regarding the impact of the rehabilitation on emotional distress levels?

10. What are the weaknesses of the design in this example?

(Grove 373-376)

Grove, Susan K., Daisha Cipher. Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition. Saunders, 022016. VitalBook file.

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**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction: In this assignment, we will answer questions related to Exercises 31 and 32 from the book Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice. The questions cover independent and paired samples t-tests, assumptions, means, t-test values, significance level, interpretation of results, weaknesses of the design, and more.

1. For Exercise 31, in order to determine whether the example data meet the assumptions for the independent samples t-test, we would need to check whether the data meets the assumptions of normal distribution, equal variances (homogeneity of variances), and independence. Normal distribution can be checked using a histogram or a normal probability plot, equal variances can be checked using Levene’s test, and independence is usually assumed unless there is a reason to believe otherwise. A rationale for the answer should also be provided.

2. For Exercise 31, if we were to calculate by hand, we would need to draw the frequency distributions of the dependent variable wages earned, and check the shape of the distribution. If using SPSS, we would need to check the result of the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the dependent variable.

3. For Exercise 31, we would need to calculate the means for two groups’ wages earned.

4. For Exercise 31, we would need to calculate the independent samples t-test value.

5. For Exercise 31, we would need to determine whether the t-test is significant at alpha level 0.05. We would arrive at the answer by comparing the obtained p-value to the alpha level. If the p-value is less than the alpha level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the results are statistically significant.

6. For Exercise 31, if using SPSS, we would need to check the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. This can be done by checking the p-value.

7. For Exercise 31, we would need to determine which group earned the most money post-treatment.

8. For Exercise 31, we would need to write the interpretation of the results as we would in an APA-formatted journal.

9. For Exercise 31, we would need to infer from the results regarding the impact of the supported employment vocational rehabilitation on wages earned.

10. For Exercise 31, we would need to determine whether the sample size was adequate to detect significant differences between the two groups in this example. A rationale for the answer should also be provided.

1. For Exercise 32, in order to determine whether the example data meet the assumptions for the paired samples t-test, we would need to check whether the data meets the assumptions of normal distribution, independence, and no outliers. Normal distribution can be checked using a histogram or a normal probability plot, independence is usually assumed unless there is a reason to believe otherwise, and outliers can be detected visually or by using statistical tests. A rationale for the answer should also be provided.

2. For Exercise 32, if we were to calculate by hand, we would need to draw the frequency distributions of the two variables, and check the shapes of the distributions. If using SPSS, we would need to check the results of the Shapiro-Wilk tests of normality for the two variables.

3. For Exercise 32, we would need to calculate the means for the baseline and posttreatment affective distress scores, respectively.

4. For Exercise 32, we would need to calculate the paired samples t-test value.

5. For Exercise 32, we would need to determine whether the t-test is significant at alpha level 0.05. We would arrive at the answer by comparing the obtained p-value to the alpha level. If the p-value is less than the alpha level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the results are statistically significant.

6. For Exercise 32, if using SPSS, we would need to check the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. This can be done by checking the p-value.

7. For Exercise 32, we would need to determine whether the affective distress scores improved or deteriorated over time.

8. For Exercise 32, we would need to write the interpretation of the results as we would in an APA-formatted journal.

9. For Exercise 32, we would need to infer from the results regarding the impact of the rehabilitation on emotional distress levels.

10. For Exercise 32, we would need to identify the weaknesses of the design in this example.