A 22 year old Caucasian male presented with a myriad of complaints including: constant unexplained fatigue, frequent headaches, weight loss, cough, shortness of breath, and diarrhea. In addition, he reported white spots in his oral cavity and difficulty swallowing. The patient reported a history significant for flu-like symptoms that lasted for several weeks, Herpes, and multiple sexual encounters.
Upon examination, Dr. Ima Mune, noted the following:
Oral cavity: Candidiasis noted in the buccal and lingual areas.
Integumentary: Purple lesions on the skin.
Lymphatic System: Positive for swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits.
Pulmonary: Positive for dry crackles during inspiration.
Speech: Mild dysarthria.
Cognition: Adequate function.
Following the aforementioned findings, Dr. Ima Mune ordered an initial immunoassay. Pending results, a Western blot test was to be done.
Your Challenge: What diagnosis was Dr. Ima Mune suspecting? What other tests may be needed to confirm or rule out possible coexisting conditions? What treatment(s) should be considered? What is the prognosis? REMEMBER TO PROVIDE AT LEAST ONE LINK THAT SUPPORTS YOUR FINDINGS.
At the end of your initial post, select 10 medical terms related to this body system, dissect them into their component parts, and provide their meanings. 🙂
Expert Solution Preview
Based on the patient’s symptoms and physical examination, Dr. Ima Mune may be suspecting that the patient has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patient’s history of multiple sexual encounters and herpes, along with the presence of candidiasis, purple lesions on the skin, swollen lymph nodes, and dry crackles during inspiration, are all common symptoms associated with AIDS. The immunoassay and Western blot test are both commonly used for diagnosing AIDS. Additional tests that may be needed to confirm or rule out possible coexisting conditions include a complete blood count (CBC), chemistry panel, and viral load test.
Treatment for AIDS generally involves a combination of antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications and medications to treat any associated infections or conditions. The prognosis for AIDS has improved significantly over the years with advances in medical treatment, but it still depends on factors such as the patient’s age, overall health, and how soon treatment is started.
Here is a link to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s page on HIV/AIDS: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html
Medical Terms related to this body system:
1. Immunodeficiency – lack of proper function of the immune system
2. Candidiasis – infection caused by a yeast-like fungus
3. Lymph nodes – small, bean-shaped structures that filter lymph and are part of the immune system
4. Pulmonary – relating to the lungs
5. Dysarthria – difficulty speaking due to impairment of the tongue or other muscles involved in speech
6. Cognition – the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding
7. Immunoassay – a test that uses antibodies to detect the presence of a substance, usually an antigen
8. Western blot – a type of immunoassay used to detect specific proteins in a sample
9. Viral load – the amount of virus in a person’s blood
10. Antiretroviral – medications used to treat viral infections, such as HIV/AIDS, by inhibiting the virus’s ability to replicate.
1. Immuno (immune) – Deficiency (lack of proper function)
2. Candid (candida fungus) – iasis (condition or process)
3. Lymph (lymphatic system) – nodes (small, bean-shaped structures)
4. Pulmon (lung) – ary (relating to)
5. Dys (difficulty) – arthria (articulation or speech)
6. Cognit (knowledge or understanding) – ion (process)
7. Immuno (immune) – assay (test)
8. Western (named after the process developed in Western labs) – blot (the separation of proteins)
9. Viral (virus) – load (quantity)
10. Antiretroviral (inhibiting retrovirus replication)